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Cells

The immune system's T cell (in blue) makes contact with another cell (in red) that is presenting something foreign on its cell surface. The T cell is making way to get rid of this foreign substance that may cause harm to the organism. Credit: John James (UCSF)
The immune system's T cell (in blue) makes contact with another cell (in red) that is presenting something foreign on its cell surface. The T cell is making way to get rid of this foreign substance that may cause harm to the organism. Credit: John James (UCSF)
A brain neuron from a mouse cerebellum. Credit: Maryann Martone (Cell Image Library)
A brain neuron from a mouse cerebellum. Credit: Maryann Martone (Cell Image Library)


MITOSIS. You see a cell grown in the laboratory (original derived from a fruit fly) that expresses fluorescently tagged histone (in red, histone binds DNA hence highlights the chromosomes) and tubulin (in green, tubulin is a component of the skeleton of the cell that also is a major component of the spindle during cell division). During cell division, the copies of each chromosome are evenly divided between the two daughter nuclei. Cell division in these cells takes 30-60 minutes. Credit: Nico Stuurman (HHMI/UCSF)
TRANSPORT OF MEMBRANES INSIDE OF A SQUID GIANT AXON. Nerve cells have very long axons (long, slender projections of a nerve cell), which can be as long as a meter in humans. The axon connects the cell body with the nerve terminal and best known to conduct the electrical impulse through the nerve. Inside of the axon is an amazing highway of material being transported between the cell body and terminal. In the first half of this movie, you can see transport of membranes inside of a squid giant axon (in real time, not sped up). The elongated objects are mitochondria. In the second half of the movie, the inside of the axon (axoplasm) is spread out on a glass coverslip. You can see the transport of organelles and mitochondria continuing on clear tracks, which are microtubules. This transport is driven by the molecular motor proteins kinesin and dynein and is fueled by a chemical energy source, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Credit: Ron Vale, Bruce Schnapp, Mike Sheetz and Tom Reese
WHITE BLOOD CELLS CHASING A BACTERIUM. White bloods cells protect your body against invading bacteria. This time lapse movie shows a white blood cell (a neutrophil) tracking and chasing a bacteria, and at the very end, it catches up to it and engulfs it. The white blood cell senses bacteria-specific molecules and then moves towards high concentrations of those molecules. The other cells that are immotile are red blood cells whose job is to deliver oxygen to the body. This movie (from a blood sample placed on a slide) was made in the 1950s using a 16 mm time-lapse camera attached to a microscope. Credit: The late David Rogers from Vanderbilt University.


TIME-LAPSE MOVIE OF THE FIRST 24 HOURS OF ZEBRAFISH DEVELOPMENT. This movie starts after the first division of the fertilized zebrafish egg. The two cells are sitting on the top of the yolk which will serve as the embryos food for the first week of development. The cells divide many times and move down over the yolk. The movie finishes with the fishes body emerging from the ball of embryonic cells…the head and eye at one end and the tail at the other. Credit: Don Kane (U. Rochester)
MOVEMENT OF MEMBRANE VESICLES INSIDE OF CELLS. Membrane proteins and lipids are transported through the “secretory pathway”. The 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three scientists (Rothman, Schekman, and Sudhof) for their work on deciphering the steps in this pathway. This movie shows the movement of vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus; the vesicles are tagged with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) so that they can be visualized by fluorescence microsopy. This is a time lapse movie (time shown in the counter).Credit: Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz (NIH)
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